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Interactive simulation of power grid dynamics.

© CoNDyNet Collaboration

For instructions on how to interact with the simulation, please scroll to the bottom. Click on the CoNDynNet logo above to return to the main page.

What do we see here?

To the right you see a representation of the Scandinavian high-voltage power transmission network. The links are existing transmission lines of capacity K. They change their width proportional to line loading. The nodes are sites of power producers or consumers, each of which generates or consumes one unit of power P. The state of each node is characterised by two variables, its phase φ (node colour) and frequency ω (node size). The normal operation corresponds to the synchronisation of all nodes to a common frequency of 50Hz with constant phase differences such that line loadings are constant.

The phase and frequency of the i-th node, evolve according to the following equation:

The parameter α corresponds to the damping at each node. You can use the input form to vary it between 0 and 1 (this resets the simulation). For convenience, the simulation is using a co-rotating reference frame with a default speed of 50Hz. You can control the speed in the input form. By setting it to 50Hz, oscillations at the synchronous grid frequency appear static. A value of 0Hz then corresponds to a static frame.

The Frequency Meter

In an AC power grid, it is an essential objective to maintain a stable common grid frequency, typically 50Hz. It corresponds to a perfectly balanced system where electricity production meets the demand on the consumer side. According to European regulation, frequency deviations must not be larger than +/-0.2Hz, otherwise special action is required.
To the lower right you see an indicator for the average grid frequency -- a frequency meter. The needle points upwards when the system operates at 50Hz. Negative and positive deviations correspond to under- respectively overproduction. The red dots mark the lowest and highest local frequency deviations, the numerical values are stated below the meter.

Experiments with Local Disturbances

You can now study the effects of disturbances at single nodes on the power grid. By clicking on a node, its phase φ and frequency ω are reset to values you can specify in the input form to the right. Set the phase pertubation to a value between +/-π and the frequency perturbation to a value between +/-15Hz. Observe how the nodes change their colour/ size and how the links change their width proportional to the phase/frequency and line loadings. Using such experiments, the CoNDyNet researchers attempt to answer questions like:

Controlling the Simulation

There are four coulored buttons on the right to

Furthermore, there are two additional buttons to switch the node colour scheme and to enable a magnifying lens to take a closer look at the netweork.

Related CoNDyNet Publications


Toggle color scheme

Reset network Random state

Start simulation Stop simulation